• Mitsushi Kitajo


In literary works, the dialogue is expressed by direct speech construction. The
direct speech construction consists of author’s words (AW) and character’s words
(CW). The predicate verbs of AW in the dialogue form include not only verbs
indicating speech (TVS) but also verbs that do not denote speech (TVN).
The dialogue forms are divided into four types according to the positional
combinations of AW and CW. Type A: AW is in preposition to CW; Type B: AW is in
postposition to CW; Type C: AW is in interposition to CW; Type D: AW includes CW.
Previous studies have not paid sufficient attention to the relationship between TVN
and the dialogue forms. This paper proposes two analysis criteria: 1) frequency of
the 4 types indicated above and frequency of TVN, 2) frequency of the 4 types and
frequency of TVN depending on semantics. Here, we study the material selected from
Russian novels and Japanese novels of the second half of the 19th – second half of the
20th century. Our analysis has revealed the following: 1) in Russian novels, TVN
appears intensively in type C, while in Japanese novels TVN does not appear
disproportionately in a specific type of the dialogue form while the use of TVN
depends on the most frequently used dialogue form. 2) TVNs meaning ‘facial
expression’ and ‘gesture’ are frequently used in all dialogue forms in Russian and
Japanese novels. Theoretically, TVN and type C are closely related, but it seems that
TVN appears differently in type C due to the difference in recognition of type C
between Russian and Japanese.
Key words: AW, CW, TVN, 4 types of dialogue forms, type C, lexical
meanings of TVN

The purpose of the article is tofind out the contextual features of WC and WA in the direct construction,taking into accountthe positional relations between the words of the characters and the author in Russian and Japanese literary works.

Methods.We have taken the material from Russian literary works (32 works) and Japanese literary works (72 works) of the second half of the 19th - the second half of the 20th centuries.Our study identified four possible positions of WA in relation to WC: Type A: WA is in preposition to WC; Type B: WA is in postposition to WC; Type C: WA is in interposition with WC; Type D: WA includes WC. We analyzed the frequency of 4 types in Russian and Japanese literary works.

Results.The result of the analysis of the frequency of the use of 4 types in Russian and Japanese works shows that type C is concentrated in Russian works, while type D is preferred in Japanese works.

Discussion.We consider the result of the analysis from the point of view of the historical relationship between prose and play in Russian and Japanese.In the history of Russian literature, drama has a longer history than prose.The play influences prose forms of dialogue.In a dramatic work, the author's remarks, as a rule, are presented in a minimal amount and are a secondary text.In other words, WCare important in drama, and WA do not subjectively correspond to WC, but are objectively interconnected.Thus, type C, emphasizing WC, is widely used in Russian works.Japan has "Joruri". Joruri is a special genre of dramatic rhythmic prose designed specifically for recitative singing.Unlike Russian plays, in Joruri WC and WA are not objectively opposed to each other.By keeping the rhythm created by WC and WA, WA advance the plot.Joruri has made a great contribution to Japanese culture.Joruri influenced the use of type D in Japanese prose.

Keywords:the direct speech construction, the words of the author, the words of the characters, the positional relations,the type C, the type D, the drama, Joruri